Drama Over Music Video Inflames Argument About What Anime Is

Yesterday, acclaimed American electronic musician Porter Robinson released an anime. Shelter is the short and tender story of a girl living alone in virtual reality, rendered by Japanese animation studio A-1 Pictures. It has received overwhelming praise over the last 24 hours. And, after its swift removal from Reddit's 420,000-strong anime subreddit, Shelter has also become the latest peg in the debate over what actually defines "anime" -- a debate that has apparently resulted in death threats to /r/anime moderators. Shelter

Robinson, 24, is from North Carolina and, in 2016, was named MTVu artist of the year. Shelter's co-producer, Madeon, is from France. Next month, the duo will be performing at New York's Madison Square Garden. Since Robinson's 2010 debut, he's become somewhat of a sensation, particularly among American otaku. Robinson draws heavily from J-pop, sampling vocaloid-inspired female sounds in his dreamy electronic tracks. In an interview with Popspoken, Robinson told reporter Skii Chung that his brother, now a video producer at Polygon, got him into video games and anime at a young age. Dance Dance Revolution's bubble-gummy music was a big influence for him.

Robinson and Madeon spent much of 2016 producing, writing and making music for Shelter, a stunning anime-inspired music video for their eponymous single, which Rolling Stone described as "silky electro-pop". In it, a pink-haired girl with wide, pink eyes navigates a virtual reality that her father made for her. She's alone in the simulation, but can download her every thought into it and make them real with her tablet: Structures, sounds, landscapes, objects. It's a delicate, precious music video that, by the end, will make whimper like you've chopped a truckload of onions.

Of course, Robinson and Madeon didn't make Shelter by themselves -- a team of Japanese artists and animators at A-1 Pictures, which produced hit anime Sword Art Online and Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic, designed Shelter. One of the biggest anime studios, Aniplex, claims A-1 Pictures as a subsidiary.

None of this impressed the moderators of /r/anime. After the video's 5:00AM AEDT release on YouTube and anime streaming service Crunchyroll, Redditor Abel Toy posted it to /r/anime. It was immediately upvoted to the top at a rate of 98 per cent. Then, it was gone.

/r/anime is a well-moderated subreddit where spoilers rarely see the light of day, hentai is promptly removed and current anime is discussed in episode-specific threads. Over a dozen rules maintain ordered conversation on a topic that, often, is discussed in excited screams. Number one on the list of rules is that "Everything posted here must be anime specific". Moderators clarify on a wiki that all discussion must be "strictly about what we consider 'Anime'", which they define as "an animated series, produced and aired in Japan, intended for a Japanese audience".

"Anime", they assert, is not a "style" of illustration or animation.

Shelter

Shelter disappeared from the top of the mega-forum a mere hour after it was posted. When it was reposted, it was swiftly deleted again. Moderators had made an automated bot to remove every post that included the words "Shelter" or "Porter Robinson". In an AutoModerator post sent to /r/anime veteran Krazymouse, he was told that the moderators "do not consider music videos produced by animation studios to be anime specific".

Reached by email, Robinson was in back-to-back meetings in Japan and unavailable for comment.

When Robinson found out about Shelter's deletion from one of the largest anime forums on the net, he posted on Twitter that he was "heartbroken". Fans of his, alongside /r/anime subscribers and lurkers, were furious. The post had received hundreds of comments of praise. Shelter had moved several thousand people. It sure looked like anime: Big eyes, colourful hair, small mouths. And, yeah, it was produced in Japan. What was the issue?

"This is a music video by an artist that contracted out a studio that happens to also produce anime. If A-1 was contracted to produce episode of Spongebob, we wouldn't allow that either," a /r/anime moderator explained.

Robinson and Madeon produced Shelter. But Shelter's Art Director, Yusuke Takeda, was also the Art Director for three Berserk movies, several Ghost in the Shell movies, Sword Art Online I and II and Gankutsuou, which is a beyond-stunning anime with ground-breaking art. Megumi Kouno, a key animator for [email protected] and freelancer with A-1 Pictures, directed the character design drawing. Storyboard Animation Director Toshifumi Akai was the Chief Animation Director on Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic. The list goes on.

Also, Shelter debuted in Shibuya, Tokyo to a live audience on a digital billboard. A-1 Pictures President Tomonori Ochikoshi even told Crunchyroll that "Porter is extremely knowledgeable about Japanese animation and he inspired us with his expectations for what he could create with us." Robinson and his fans couldn't understand what about Shelter or its coming-to-be made it less anime than, say, a Studio Ghibli film.

Shelter

When I asked Miyazaki International College anthropologist Debra Occhi, who is based in Japan, whether she thought Shelter is anime, curious, she posed the question to her six anthropology seminar students. Four of six said Shelter is anime because, in her words, "The Japanese style of drawing and language did matter, more than ethnicity of creators... and yet it was important that most of them were Japanese," adding that "The song being by a non-Japanese doesn't matter." Two said that, because the production staff was not all Japanese, it's not an anime.

Occhi argues that Shelter is an anime, since it has the "Japanese visual sense and narrative style" along with a production staff stacked with Japanese natives. Shelter's floaty hair, wide eyes and dotted noses, as well as its roots in Japan, make its status as anime a no-brainer.

Duke University cultural anthropologist Patrick Galbraith, who studies otaku culture, agreed with Occhi when reached for comment:

A-1 Pictures has done some fine work in the past, work that moved us and is burned into the collective memory. For some fans, seeing the images without the stories they love, and in a music video targeting people outside of the community no less, might offend them on a deeply personal level. That is not my anime. But it makes me smile to see A-1 and anime turning heads and, potentially, bringing in new people. I would hope that people like to share. That is not my anime, yes, but it is our anime.

Last year, Kotaku's Brian Ashcraft addressed the topic of what constitutes anime in a thorough history. The word "anime", he writes, only caught on in Japan in the '70s. He cites Astro Boy, a landmark Japanese cartoon that aired in the early '60s, as a genre-definer, even though its look was influenced by Walt Disney. "'Anime'," Ashcraft writes, "became a brilliant branding -- a way to separate Japanese cartoons from cartoons in the rest of the world... Warranted or not, 'anime' became a way to make the country's cartoons appear different."

Despite its look, Shelter's branding isn't all-Japanese: Robinson and Madeon boast American and French brands. Shelter is marketed, in part, to those audiences, even though it debuted in Tokyo.

Ashcraft adds that some "anime" studios, like Studio Ghibli, steer clear of the word "anime" in favour of "film" or "work", since the term is so charged. Their branding is distinct. "Anime", Ashcraft says, now refers more generally to a style of animation -- a style that Shelter doubtlessly adheres to -- even in Japanese.

Astro Boy

"Japan doesn't have a monopoly on giant animated eyes," Ashcraft says.

The /r/anime moderators might disagree. Reached for comment, Neito, who has moderated the subreddit for 10 years, said, "While Shelter was animated by an anime studio, it was produced by Americans (Mr Robinson and his label). This rendered it separate from co-productions (such as the upcoming Toonami/Production I.G. co-production of FLCL, where each side is an equally powerful creative force) and exactly like a traditional commissioned work, such as how Batman: the Animated Series was animated by Sunrise (more traditionally known for the Gundam and Code Geass series)."

He maintains that the /r/anime moderators weren't judging Shelter to be bad. "Anime" isn't a marker of quality. It's just a matter of defining a genre -- one that Shelter, with its international branding, doesn't fit in. "We were simply saying 'This belongs elsewhere,' like if you posted about classical music in /r/gaming," he added. You can read his full comment to Kotaku here.

A screenshot from /r/anime

Neito still maintains that he and his fellow moderators were right to remove the post. But just one hour afterwards, the post was reinstated. Their hands were, in a sense, forced. Angry fans leaked the name of the moderator who had deleted the post. Harassment escalated. Rabid /r/anime subscribers allegedly sent death threats to the mods, which apparently inspired them to contact Twitter support. (These tweets, Neito says, have "since been reported or removed".) Despite the mods' firm belief that Shelter is not anime, they calculated that safety was more important than principles.

Several /r/anime subscribers were furious that the debate allegedly escalated to death threats. It was embarrassing to a subreddit that is so large and, generally, tame: The last big drama, a /r/anime subscriber told me, was over a post about the "Top 10 Anime Bathing Scenes of 2014".

Today, Shelter remains at the top of /r/anime with 5200 upvotes. Fans have been translating portions of it from Japanese to English and discussing Shelter's themes of virtual reality and fatherhood. Yesterday, the top comments were quips against the moderators' unilateral decision about what anime is. Today, the top comments are about how Shelter made them cry.


Comments

    I guess you'd have to call Pharrell Williams - It Girl anime as well, right?

    I consider Anime to be a series (however short or long) that is not a stand-alone film. It is animated in the 'Japanese style'. Whether or not it is produced by Japanese people is irrelevant.

    Wow, Now I wonder what they had any drama about RWBY? The anime-inspired CGI animation produced in Austin Texas and is getting japanese dubbed and is being broadcast and imported into Japan and sold as an "anime"

      Plenty of people throw their toys out of the cot when they call RWBY an anime too.

    I think the mods of that forum would be in for a rude shock if they knew just how much anime is either funded by Western production companies, and/or produced with Western audiences in mind.

    The idea that anime is strictly "produced by and created specifically for Japanese people" is so godsdamned asinine.

    As for Shelter, the song is trash but the video is great.

    Last edited 20/10/16 10:48 am

    It is such an useless distinction though. If it looks like anime, was intently made to look like anime, by employing people who are experts in making anime, what is the problem? You can get unnecessarily technical about small details, but you have to ask yourself how does such purism adds anything to discourse.

    Still, death threats over that are ridiculous and condemnable.

    Occhi has it right. "Anime" in the strictest sense is just the Japanese word for "animation", just like "animazione" is the Italian word for it. When we use the word in Western culture, it's to distinguish it from Western cartoons and set a person's expectations about the style, aesthetics, themes and execution since Eastern animation is often radically different. Who makes it and in what country is largely irrelevant. If we found out that Sailor Moon was actually made by Westerners all along, would we suddenly stop calling it anime? Similarly, is Samurai Pizza Cats anime because the art and animation is from the original anime but the sequencing and script is an adaptation by Westerners.

    Last edited 20/10/16 12:11 pm

    Is it just me or is Reddit run by autistic children?

    The definition being used by the Reddit editors is probably the most widely accepted one. I've seen some animation produced in Japan which was pretty clearly not "anime." Japanese and Korean studios are much cheaper per minute of animation than American studios, so that's understandable.

    On the other hand, the anime "style" covers such an enormous range beyond the standard big-eyes-small-mouth stereotype that being pedantic about it is fairly pointless. Similarly, while most American-authored "manga" is easy to spot, there are occasional titles that are basically indistinguishable from Japanese product.

    And then there's the issue with Korean manhwa and animation - especially when so many Japanese studios depend heavily on South Korean teams for things like tweening.

    Reddit is probably best off doing what they wound up doing here; to paraphrase a famous definition of Science Fiction, Anime is now that thing you mean when you point at something and say "That's anime."

    The attitude that animation that isn't produced in Japan isn't 'anime' seems to me like another artefact of Western fetishisation of Japanese culture - the idea that an American or European made animation using a Japanese art-style, narrative structure, tropes, themes etc. can't be put in the same category as one made in Japan smacks to me of the idea held by portions of the fan-base that nothing else can come close to glorious Nippon.

    If we don't call animation using all or most of those stylistic features anime, what word do we have for it? Referring to the style rather than the country of origin also seems to be by far the most common usage in English based on my personal experience.

      As extreme as they may be, they're not entirely wrong: anime are not characterised by their drawing style only, but also by the stories they tell, and especially by the way they tell those stories. How can you manage to obtain the sensibility to tell stories in a certain way if you're not born and raised in that particular sociocultural environment (i.e. Japan)?
      I'm currently playing the Dead Rising series, well, you can immediately tell that the story of DR1 was written by Japanese while that of DR2 by Americans.

      "If we don't call animation using all or most of those stylistic features anime, what word do we have for it?"

      I would call call them "hamburger manga/anime", just like "spaghetti western".
      (I hope it's not considered too offensive by today's standards).

      Last edited 24/03/17 3:18 am

    i think i prefer the old days when they were just saturday morning cartoons because no one either knew or cared where they were made

    Their artificial definition of anime is useless as a means of classification. It justs reeks of borderline xenophobic smugness.

    I think it's silly to make "produced entirely by Japanese people for a Japanese audience" a requirement for the genre, purely because almost no conventional genre labels have such a specifically onerous requirement that completely overwrites the content of the material in question.

    Easy comparison; food. You go to a restaurant that serves Japanese food, made in a traditional Japanese way, indistinguishable from what you'd actually get in Japan. Then, you discover that the person making it was German, and that the people eating it were American. Is the food suddenly not "Japanese food" just because the people eating and making it weren't from Japan? Of course not - it's still "Japanese food" and you'd get side-eyed pretty hard if you insisted that it wasn't.

    Any reasonable person uses "anime" to describe the style & convention of content, not the ethnicity of its creators or audience. Insisting on doing otherwise isn't just purism, it's ludicrously obstinate.

    Last edited 23/03/17 10:55 am

      The problem it's not ethnicity but culture, animes are made in Japan by people embedded in Japanese culture, if made outside of that sociocultural environment they're not Anime anymore, regardless of the drawing style.

      Last edited 24/03/17 2:50 am

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