Why Do Motherboards Have Batteries?

If your computer is plugged in all the times, then why does it need a battery? Turns out, there's a very good reason.

Photo: Rafael Pol (Unsplash)

In some systems, the CMOS battery powers a small, super-low-power volatile memory chip on your motherboard. This memory chip is responsible for holding on to your motherboard's BIOS settings. If you didn't have a battery, your motherboard would always boot with its factory-default BIOS settings — a Groundhog Day scenario of-sorts.

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The battery that powers the CMOS chip also powers the motherboard's real-time clock, or RTC. That's responsible for the motherboard keeping accurate time, and can help you figure out when your CMOS battery is dying (or dead). If you notice that the time is really wrong during POST, when you pull up your motherboard's BIOS, or within your operating system, odds are good that you need to replace the CMOS battery.

Since the CMOS chip is responsible for holding on to your motherboard's BIOS settings in some cases, one of the easier troubleshooting techniques you can take, when confronted with a fussy PC that's having issues during the startup or POST process, is to just pop out the CMOS battery. This will reset the settings of your motherboard's BIOS to default and might, in some cases, fix whatever issue it was that you were having.

These issues can also alert you that your CMOS battery is dying (or dead). If you find that your motherboard's settings keep resetting to their defaults, or you're having trouble booting into your operating system (or even finding hard drives), it might be worth looking into a new CMOS battery if it's been a few years since you've purchased or built your PC.

For newer PCs that store BIOS settings in non-volatile memory, your only clue that something is wrong with the CMOS battery might be a little error message when your system boots (or the time will be completely wrong). You can still remove the battery to reset your BIOS settings.

Though the CMOS battery isn't directly required to keep these settings preserved in memory, your motherboard might see the missing battery and go, "Oh, I should reset all the settings to their factory defaults, just like the old days." Your motherboard might also have a completely different procedure for resetting its BIOS settings to their defaults — best to consult the manual on this one.

Your CMOS battery's lifespan depends on its overall capacity, how much current your motherboard draws, and how often you use your system. A good rule of thumb is to start pondering a CMOS replacement right around the three-year mark or so. (That's "thinking about it in case your computer starts acting weird and you aren't sure why." You don't need to go out and stockpile a battery for no reason.)

Your battery might be able to make it even longer — five years or more. Generally, I don't worry about the battery until it looks like it's dead. Since watch batteries are cheap, it's just a slight inconvenience to go to the store to pick a new one up if (or when) a computer starts having mysterious BIOS-related issues.


Comments

    Was having intermittent issues a while back with a system... No display on boot, random crashes while playing games. Of all things replacing the CMOS battery solved everything.

    Best we could figure out was because the PC wasn't always powered, switched completely off at the wall, the CMOS battery finally died and so the motherboard was having issues with the fact that there was a graphics card installed.

    New battery and all the issues went away.

      Its strange how the smallest thing can have such a big impact. I remember having some serious issues at one point, and it turned out to be USB drivers.

      Another time (upgrading to Win 8 or 10), I'd keep losing folders and files (that I wasnt accessing) on my main HDD, only for them to reappear a while later. Turned out the HDD drivers needed updating. Drivers hidden away deep on the manufacturers website, and not referenced at all on their download page...

      There are so many little things to remember and check. And forget to check.

        In the cyberpunk novel "Fairyland" The protagonist's computer is described as a living ecosystem of sorts, When he inserts new data etc. He sees it grow like mold or fungus, Good book btw.

        Sometimes those tiny things are physical like when I'd been having machine freezes that led to a failure to even POST beep. The reason? One little capacitor had bulged and died.

    The battery is probably less useful these days than they were. If you've got an always on internet connection, it isn't too much trouble to reset the system clock via NTP on each boot. And if you only suspend your system rather than shutting it down completely, it'll draw a small amount of current that can keep the RTC accurate while asleep.

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